The LTV-SDO (long-term validation signed data object) specification can be downloaded as a PDF here: LTV-SDO-specification-1.1
|0.5||17.01.2014||Document created from policy version 1.1, document
|0.6||17.10.2014||Added descriptions of OriginalDocument and
|1.0||01.11.2014||Released as document version 1.0|
|CAdES||ETSI TS 101 733: “Electronic Signatures and Infrastructures (ESI); CMS Advanced
Electronic Signatures (CAdES)”
|XAdES||ETSI TS 101 903: “XML Advanced Electronic Signatures (XAdES)|
|PAdES||ETSI TS 102 778: “Electronic Signatures and Infrastructures (ESI);
PDF Advanced Electronic Signature Profiles
Following the European Commission (EC) Electronic Signature Directive 1999/93/EC, ETSI1 developed standards for e-signatures that fulfilled the requirements for Advanced Electronic Signatures (AES) and Qualified Electronic Signatures (QES) in the directive. These three related standards, named CAdES, XAdES and PAdES, define e-signature formats for CMS-, XML- and PDF-based signatures. A major concern for these standards has been the ability to validate signatures many years after the signing took place, also known as long-term validation (LTV).
During the following decade many e-signature solutions have been widely deployed in Scandinavia. Only a very few of those support the *AdES standards, and none of them use these standards for the default e-signature format. Typically they produce e-signatures on standards like XML Digital Signature, CMS/PKCS#7 or similar, proprietary standards.
This situation, where all e-ID solutions produce signatures on different formats, complicates the usage of e-signatures, because it is often not desirable to require that all signers use the same e-signature solution.
The support for long-term validation of e-signatures is similarly varying, and often lacking completely. Signature formats like XML Signature and CMS/PKCS#7 do not support verification of the signature after the signing certificate is expired or revoked. Worse, it is impossible to securely determine when the signature was created without relying on external evidence like secure logs and similar.
A signature verifier could extend an e-signature with long-term validation support, but typically the e-signature does not support the inclusion of the necessary data elements. The *AdES standards cannot be used, because they require that the original signature producing software created the signature on *AdES format from the start.
This document defines an e-signature storage format that can be part of a solution to the problems described above. The signature format extends a digital signature with long-term validation support, even if the original digital signature format did not support this. It also provides a uniform signature format that can contain e-signatures produced with different e-ID solutions.
1European Telecommunications Standard Institute
The main requirements to the format are:
A common storage format for e-signatures that can be applied after the signature has been created, and which does not need support from the signature creation software. The format needs to be flexible enough to support different native e-signature formats, like XML Digital Signature, CMS/PKCS#7 and others.
Consistent support for validation of e-signatures originating from different e-signature services. The format should support the inclusion of validation data and a packaging policy specification to obtain a consistent support for validation for all e-signatures used in a specific application.
Support for long-term validation. The format should support inclusion of validation data and time stamps to make e-signatures suited for long-term validation and storage.
Support for signature context information. The context in which a signature was created may be of great significance for assessing the strength of a signature. The signature creation environment and the application context are important to understand how the information and act of signing was presented to the signer. Apart from that, all recorded details can function as additional evidence, and potentially further strengthen non-repudiation.
Support for audit trails. The audit trails show the history of the e-signature. They add evidence and strengthen non-repudiation.
Standards based. The format should build on existing standards as far as possible. Specifically, the LTV support is aligned with the *AdES standards. The *AdES standards are designed to comply with the European legal framework, and their support for long-term validation is recognized.
An LTV-SDO consists of five main elements:
- The packaging policy identifier identifies the packaging policy, which defines how the package was created, and how it can be verified and used.
- The native signature contains the e-signature we are primarily interested in, the one we want to affirm. It also may contain validation data, which facilitates validation of this signature, like revocation information or certificates.
- The signature context contains information about the context in which the original signature was created, like software versions and references to the application context.
- The audit trails are secure logs of the creation and verification of the signature.
- The TSP signature is a digital signature made on the complete LTV-SDO by a Trusted Service Provider to secure its integrity and authenticity. Specifically, the qualifying properties for the native signature, the signature context information and the audit trail are signed by the TSP signature.
The major parties involved in the processes using the LTV-SDO are mainly the same as in XAdES, the most important being the Signer, the Verifier and the Time-Stamping Authority. A new role is defined for a trusted party which collects signature context information and validation data, and formats and signs the LTV-SDO. It is simply called the TSP (Trusted Service Provider). The TSP typically also covers the Verifier role, but not necessarily.
The packaging policy
In the *AdES standards, a signature policy is defined as “a set of rules for the creation and validation of an electronic signature, under which the signature can be determined to be valid”.
The native signature may or may not have an explicit or implicit signature policy. This signature policy may or may not be identified in the native SDO.
This is potentially a problem for long-term validation. The verifier needs to know how to validate the signature. Also, as the LTV-SDO adds support for additional validation data, there is a need for defining how this support should be used for a given type of native SDO and a given context.
To this end a separate policy, called a packaging policy, is defined for the creation and verification of an LTV-SDO.
The purpose of the packaging policy is to specify requirements for the packaging process, and high-level requirements for the prior signature creation and verification process.
The primary users of the packaging policy will be e-signature users (relying parties). The policy will help e-signature users to better understand the information contained in a package, and on what basis it can be trusted and used.
The policy will also be useful for implementers of the packaging service.
The packaging policy may refer to native SDO signature policies, or other normative documentation, that helps to define the creation and verification process.
The TSP Signature
As described in the *AdES standards, most of the validation data can be added by the verifier after the signature has been created. It is sufficient that these validation data are available, hence no integrity protection is needed. For validation data which need integrity protection, e. g. the signing certificate, the *AdES standards require them to be signed by the signatory. This requires support from the native signature client, which cannot be presupposed. The LTV-SDO supports additional evidence in the form of signature context and audit trails, for which authenticity and integrity need to be protected.
The requirement for protection of validation data is met by supporting a signature performed by a Trusted Service Provider (TSP) over all validation data. The Trusted Service Provider may do this in connection with the signature creation or verification, this will typically be described in the packaging policy.
The general strategy for incorporating validation data into the LTV-SDO is to use the mechanisms defined in XAdES as far as possible.
XAdES adds “qualifying properties” to an XMLDSIG signature. Some of these are signed by the signer, and others are unsigned. Similarly, the LTV-SDO adds strength to various esignature formats by adding exactly the same type of qualifying properties. The main difference is that the LTV-SDO does not require that any of the qualifying properties are signed by the signer. Instead they are signed by the TSP.
This has two implications for verification of the original signature: First, the verifier needs to verify the TSP signature in addition to the original signature. The TSP signature is an ordinary XAdES, so this can be done through the normal XAdES mechanisms.
Second, the verifier must rely on the TSP signature instead of the original signature for the correctness of the signed qualifying properties.
Time-stamping can be done by a standard XAdES archive time-stamp on the TSP signature. Because an archive time-stamp also covers the signed data, the contained native signature will be covered.
Additionally, it is possible to use a XAdES Data Object time stamp to time-stamp only the signed data. This time-stamp will be covered by the TSP signature.
The next two sections illustrate the LTV-SDO structure through a process perspective.
This section shows how a typical LTV-SDO package may evolve. The details of the
process are defined by the chosen packaging policy.
- TSP determines packaging policy
The signature policy is typically agreed upon in advance, or implied.
- TSP collects signature context information
The TSP collects the signature context information.
- Signer generates signature
The Signer generates the signature.
- Verifier verifies the signature and collects validation data
The verifier verifies the original signature. The validation data used in this verification are
collected and passed to the TSP, which adds them to the LTV-SDO.
- TSP collects additional data
The TSP collects additional data and adds them to the LTV-SDO.
- TSP signs the LTV-SDO
The TSP signs the LTV-SDO. Validation data are collected, and added to the LTV-SDO.
- TSA time stamps the original signature (optional)
A Time Stamping Authority (TSA) creates a time stamp over the TSP signature and all data
signed by the TSP, including the native signature and the signature context. The time
stamp will also cover validation data for the TSP signature.
- (Later) TSA time stamps the LTV-SDO
After some time, a Time Stamping Authority (TSA) stamps the LTV-SDO and the original
signature to strengthen the cryptography and/or protect against key compromise. This step
may be repeated.
Signature Verification Process
This section shows how a typical LTV-SDO signature is verified. The details of the process are defined by the signature policy identified in the signature.
- TSP determines signature policy
The signature policy is typically agreed upon in advance, or implied.
- The most recent archive time stamp is validated.
The most recent archive time stamp is validated in respect to the verification time. The validation process conforms to XAdES.
- Any previous time stamps are validated
Any previous time stamps are validated with respect to the time of the immediate following time stamp. This step is repeated for all archive time stamps. The validation process conforms to XAdES.
- The TSP signature is validated
The signature validation process is described by XAdES.
- The native signature is validated
The native signature is validated. How this is done, depends on the native signature, and is described in the signature policy.
Description of XML elements
This section describes the main XML elements in the LTV-SDO format.
This is the root element, which contains the complete LTV-SDO.
Consists of: Description, PackagingPolicyIdentifier, NativeSignature, AdditionalInfo,
SignatureContext, AuditTrails and Signature.
Provides an accessible description of the LTV-SDO.
Consists of: SignerDescription, DocumentDescription and SignatureDescription
Description of the signer.
Consists of: SignerDisplayName, SignerUniqueId, SignerNationalId, SignerNationality, signerNationalIdType, and other Attributes
Description of the signed document.
Consists of: DocumentMimeType, DocumentTitle, DocumentDigest
Description of the signature.
Consists of: SignatureTypeFriendlyName, SignatureFormatFriendlyName, SigningTime
Identifies the packaging policy, which describes how the package was created, rules for the formatting of the package, and how the package can be validated.
Contains the original signature made by the signer on the document or data.
Consists of: NativeSdo¸ NativeSignatureQualifyingProperties.
The Signed Data Object containing the original signature, and often the original documents and some validation data. The attributes “Format”and “MimeType” specifies the SDO format and MIME-type.
Data that facilitate validation of the native signature. This element is similar to the XAdES QualifyingProperties element, but without the distinction between signed and unsigned properties.
Present when this LtvSdo is part of a document-bundle signature. Contains the index into the bundle of the signed document represented by this LtvSdo.
The original, unsigned document. Used if the original document is not included in the NativeSdo.
Additional information added to the package by the TSP.
Consists of: SignerAttributes
Information about the context in which the original signature was created.
Consists of: SignatureCreationContext, SignatureVerificationContext and ExternalContext.
Describes the technical environment the signature was created in. Typically, it identifies
software names and versions used for signature creation.
Describes the technical environment the signature was verified in. Typically, it identifies
software names and versions used for signature verification.
Contains a reference to the external context in which this signature was created. This
could for example be a reference to the business transaction which uses the signature.
Contains records of the most important events in the creation and verification of the signature.
Consists of: SignatureCreationAuditTrail, SignatureVerificationAuditTrail
Contains records of the most important events in the creation of the signature.
It may also include details about the client configuration, such as the IP address.
Contains records of the most important events in the verification of the signature.
Contains the TSP signature in XAdES format.